A pesticide is any substance used to kill, repel, or control certain forms of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests. Pesticides include herbicides for destroying weeds and other unwanted vegetation, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fungicides used to prevent the growth of molds and mildew, disinfectants for preventing the spread of bacteria, and compounds used to control mice and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have a clear understanding of the health effects of these pesticide residues. The Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures in farm families, also posts results online. Other evidence suggests that children are particularly susceptible to adverse effects from exposure to pesticides, including neurodevelopmental effects. People may also be exposed to pesticides used in a variety of settings including homes, schools, hospitals, and workplaces.
- Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives (English) (119KB)
- Alternativas para Pesticidas: Por la seguridad de su familia y de sus mascotas (123KB)
- Healthy Homes = Healthy Kids: Pest Control (English) (310KB)
- Healthy Homes = Healthy Kids: Pest Control (Spanish) (342KB)
- Healthy Homes = Healthy Kids: Pest Control (Arabic) (364KB)
What is NIEHS Doing?
NIEHS Research Efforts
- 14th Report on Carcinogens - The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a congressionally mandated, science-based, public health report that identifies agents, substances, mixtures, or exposures (collectively called "substances") in our environment that pose a hazard to people residing in the United States.
- A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change (Full Report) (4MB) - A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change.
Stories from the Environmental Factor (NIEHS Newsletter)
- Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Linked to Infant Motor Function (July 2017)
- High Pesticide Exposure Associated with Cognitive Decline (November 2011)
- NIH Study Finds Two Pesticides Associated with Parkinson's Disease (February 11, 2011)
- Evaluating Chemicals: Is It Safe? - Toxicology Education Foundation has developed and provides audiovisual materials for the public and for health professionals to use in presentations to the public in partnership with NIEHS and others in the private sector. The goal of “Is It Safe?” is to empower the public to make good decisions about risk associated with every day products. (English with Japanese Subtitles)
- PestiBytes: A Podcast Series on Common Pesticide Questions - PestiBytes are brought to you by the National Pesticide Information Center, a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the Environmental Protection Agency and produced by OSU's Environmental Health Sciences Center, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
- Pesticide Action Network North America - PAN seeks to reduce the use of pesticides through more economically viable alternatives. Publishes reports on pesticide use, health effects, occupational safety, etc. Website also offers a Pesticide Database that allows you to search by chemical or product.
- Pesticide Exposure - The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Enviro-health links website provides an excellent set of resources that address the relationship between pesticides and human health. The webpage provides links to selected websites on pesticide exposure, as well as on the treatment and prevention of pesticide poisoning.
- Applying 21st Century Toxicology to Green Chemical and Material Design - Workshop Presentations from the National Academies Standing Committee on Use of Emerging Science for Environmental Health Decisions.
Related Health Topics
- Thayer KA, Heindel JJ, Bucher JR, Gallo MA. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Diabetes and Obesity: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(6):779-789. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104597. [Abstract Thayer KA, Heindel JJ, Bucher JR, Gallo MA. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Diabetes and Obesity: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(6):779-789. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104597.] [PDF Thayer KA, Heindel JJ, Bucher JR, Gallo MA. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Diabetes and Obesity: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(6):779-789. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104597.]
- EHP Student Edition Lesson: Arsenic and Lead Scavenger Hunt (357KB)
- EHP Student Edition Lesson: A Yen for Maximum Residue Limits in Food (144KB)
- EHP Student Edition Lesson: Is Organic Food Worth the Cost? (228KB)
- EHP Student Edition Lesson: Pyrethroid Panic (153KB)
- Un libro para colorear sobre pesticidas (786KB)
- Pesticide Safety: Elementary School Curriculum (4MB)
- Pesticide Safety: Preschool Curriculum (English and Spanish) / Seguridad de Plaguicidas: Currículum Preescolar (Inglés y Español) (5MB)
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