Systems Toxicology Branch

William Gwinn, Ph.D. is an inhalation toxicologist in the Systems Toxicology Branch of the Division of Translational Toxicology (DTT) at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. He serves as a study scientist for chemicals selected for toxicity and carcinogenicity evaluation by the NTP. His expertise is in respiratory toxicology, immunology, and inflammation, and he serves primarily as a project lead for inhalation studies within the DTT including the application of in vitro lung models to inhalation toxicology.

Gwinn received a B.S. in Biology from The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA in 1997, a M.S. in Pathology from Duke University, Durham, NC in 2001, and a Ph.D. in Immunology from The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC in 2006. He completed postdoctoral training at Duke University and within the DIR and DNTP at NIEHS.

Selected Publications

  1. Gwinn WM et al. Toxicity studies of acetoin and 2,3-pentanedione administered by inhalation to Wistar Han [Crl:WI(Han)] rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Toxic Rep Ser. 2023 Mar:(98):NTP-TOX-98. doi: 10.22427/NTP-TOX-98. [Abstract]
  2. Reisfeld B, de Conti A, El Ghissassi F, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Gwinn W, Grosse Y, Schubauer-Berigan M. kc-hits: a tool to aid in the evaluation and classification of chemical carcinogens. Bioinformatics. 2022 May 13;38(10):2961-2962. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btac189. [Abstract]
  3. Gwinn WM et al. Toxicity studies of trimethylsilyldiazomethane administered by nose-only inhalation to Sprague Dawley (Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD) rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Toxic Rep Ser. 2021 Mar:(101):NTP-TOX-101. doi: 10.22427/NTP-TOX-101. [Abstract]
  4. Gwinn WM et al. Toxicity studies of abrasive blasting agents administered by inhalation to F344/NTac rats and Sprague Dawley (Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD) Rats. Toxic Rep Ser. 2020 Jul:(91):NTP-TOX-91. doi: 10.22427/NTP-TOX-91. [Abstract]
  5. Cao X, Coyle JP, Xiong R, Wang Y, Heflich RH, Ren B, Gwinn WM, Hayden P, Rojanasakul L. Invited review: human air-liquid-interface organotypic airway tissue models derived from primary tracheobronchial epithelial cells-overview and perspectives. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2021 Feb;57(2):104-132. doi: 10.1007/s11626-020-00517-7. Epub 2020 Nov 11. [Abstract]
  6. Gwinn WM, Auerbach SS, Parham F, Stout MD, Waidyanatha S, Mutlu E, Collins B, Paules RS, Merrick BA, Ferguson S, Ramaiahgari S, Bucher JR, Sparrow B, Toy H, Gorospe J, Machesky N, Shah RR, Balik-Meisner MR, Mav D, Phadke DP, Roberts G, DeVito MJ. Evaluation of 5-day In Vivo Rat Liver and Kidney with High-throughput Transcriptomics for Estimating Benchmark Doses of Apical Outcomes. Toxicol Sci. 2020 Aug 1;176(2):343-354. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfaa081. [Abstract]
  7. Morgan DL, Flake GP, Gwinn WM, Johnson CL. NTP Research Report on Respiratory Tract Toxicity of the Flavoring Agent 2,3-Hexanedione in Mice Exposed by Inhalation: Research Report 10 [Internet]. National Toxicology Program; 2019 Aug. NTP Research Reports. doi: 10.22427/ntp-rr-10. [Abstract]
  8. Gwinn WM, Bell MW, Tokar EJ, Dixon D, Crizer DM, Urbano NC, Roberts GK, Masten SA, DeVito MJ. NTP Research Report on Synthetic Turf/Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber: Characterization of the Biological Activity of Crumb Rubber In Vitro: Research Report 12 [Internet]. National Toxicology Program; 2019 Jul. NTP Research Reports. doi: 10.22427/ntp-rr-12. [Abstract]
  9. Gwinn WM, Bousquet RW, Perry CE, Urbano NC, Auerbach SS. NTP Research Report on the Preliminary Evaluation of 4-Methylcyclohexylmethanol in an In Vitro Human Airway Model: Research Report 7 [Internet]. National Toxicology Program; 2018 Dec. NTP Research Reports. doi: 10.22427/ntp-rr-7. [Abstract]
  10. Gwinn WM, Flake GP, Bousquet RW, Taylor GJ, Morgan DL. Airway injury in an in vitro human epithelium-fibroblast model of diacetyl vapor exposure: diacetyl-induced basal/suprabasal spongiosis. Inhal Toxicol. 2017 Jun;29(7):310-321. doi: 10.1080/08958378.2017.1369604. [Abstract]
  11. Cora MC, Gwinn WM, Wilson R, King D, Waidyanatha S, Kissling GE, Brar SS, Olivera D, Blystone C, Travlos G. A Black Cohosh Extract Causes Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Consistent with a Functional Cobalamin Deficiency in Female B6C3F1/N Mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2017 Jul;45(5):614-623. doi: 10.1177/0192623317714343. Epub 2017 Jun 15. [Abstract]
  12. Brass DM, Gwinn WM, Valente AM, Kelly FL, Brinkley CD, Nagler AE, Moseley MA, Morgan DL, Palmer SM, Foster MW. The Diacetyl-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Secretome: New Insights into Flavoring-Induced Airways Disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017 Jun;56(6):784-795. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2016-0372OC. [Abstract]
  13. Foster MW, Gwinn WM, Kelly FL, Brass DM, Valente AM, Moseley MA, Thompson JW, Morgan DL, Palmer SM. Proteomic Analysis of Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to the Respiratory Toxicant Diacetyl. J Proteome Res. 2017 Feb 3;16(2):538-549. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00672. Epub 2017 Jan 9. [Abstract]
  14. Morgan DL, Jokinen MP, Johnson CL, Price HC, Gwinn WM, Bousquet RW, Flake GP. Chemical Reactivity and Respiratory Toxicity of the α-Diketone Flavoring Agents: 2,3-Butanedione, 2,3-Pentanedione, and 2,3-Hexanedione. Toxicol Pathol. 2016 Jul;44(5):763-83. doi: 10.1177/0192623316638962. Epub 2016 Mar 29. [Abstract]
  15. Morgan DL, Merrick BA, Gerrish KE, Stockton PS, Wang Y, Foley JF, Gwinn WM, Kelly FL, Palmer SM, Ton TV, Flake GP. Gene expression in obliterative bronchiolitis-like lesions in 2,3-pentanedione-exposed rats. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 24;10(2):e0118459. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118459. eCollection 2015. [Abstract]
  16. Gwinn WM, Qu W, Bousquet RW, Price H, Shines CJ, Taylor GJ, Waalkes MP, Morgan DL. Macrophage solubilization and cytotoxicity of indium-containing particles as in vitro correlates to pulmonary toxicity in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2015 Mar;144(1):17-26. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu273. Epub 2014 Dec 19. [Abstract]
  17. Kelly FL, Sun J, Fischer BM, Voynow JA, Kummarapurugu AB, Zhang HL, Nugent JL, Beasley RF, Martinu T, Gwinn WM, Morgan DL, Palmer SM. Diacetyl induces amphiregulin shedding in pulmonary epithelial cells and in experimental bronchiolitis obliterans. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 Oct;51(4):568-74. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0339OC. [Abstract]
  18. Gwinn WM, Qu W, Shines CJ, Bousquet RW, Taylor GJ, Waalkes MP, Morgan DL. Macrophage solubilization and cytotoxicity of indium-containing particles in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 2013 Oct;135(2):414-24. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft154. Epub 2013 Jul 19. [Abstract]
  19. Gwinn WM, Johnson BT, Kirwan SM, Sobel AE, Abraham SN, Gunn MD, Staats HF. A comparison of non-toxin vaccine adjuvants for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of nasally-administered anthrax recombinant protective antigen. Vaccine. 2013 Mar 1;31(11):1480-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.01.012. Epub 2013 Jan 23. [Abstract]
  20. Heller NM, Gwinn WM, Donnelly RP, Constant SL, Keegan AD. IL-4 engagement of the type I IL-4 receptor complex enhances mouse eosinophil migration to eotaxin-1 in vitro. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39673. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039673. Epub 2012 Jun 28. [Abstract]
  21. Morgan DL, Jokinen MP, Price HC, Gwinn WM, Palmer SM, Flake GP. Bronchial and bronchiolar fibrosis in rats exposed to 2,3-pentanedione vapors: implications for bronchiolitis obliterans in humans. Toxicol Pathol. 2012 Apr;40(3):448-65. doi: 10.1177/0192623311431946. Epub 2012 Jan 3. [Abstract]
  22. Gwinn WM, Kapita MC, Wang PM, Cesta MF, Martin WJ 2nd. Synthetic liposomes are protective from bleomycin-induced lung toxicity. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011 Aug;301(2):L207-17. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00149.2010. Epub 2011 May 20. [Abstract]
  23. Palmer SM, Flake GP, Kelly FL, Zhang HL, Nugent JL, Kirby PJ, Foley JF, Gwinn WM, Morgan DL. Severe airway epithelial injury, aberrant repair and bronchiolitis obliterans develops after diacetyl instillation in rats. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 25;6(3):e17644. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017644. [Abstract]
  24. Gwinn WM, Kirwan SM, Wang SH, Ashcraft KA, Sparks NL, Doil CR, Tlusty TG, Casey LS, Hollingshead SK, Briles DE, Dondero RS, Hickey AJ, Foster WM, Staats HF. Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL-1. Vaccine. 2010 Oct 4;28(42):6901-14. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.006. Epub 2010 Aug 17. [Abstract]
  25. Staats HF, Alam SM, Scearce RM, Kirwan SM, Zhang JX, Gwinn WM, Haynes BF. In vitro and in vivo characterization of anthrax anti-protective antigen and anti-lethal factor monoclonal antibodies after passive transfer in a mouse lethal toxin challenge model to define correlates of immunity. Infect Immun. 2007 Nov;75(11):5443-52. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00529-07. Epub 2007 Aug 20. [Abstract]
  26. Gwinn WM, Damsker JM, Falahati R, Okwumabua I, Kelly-Welch A, Keegan AD, Vanpouille C, Lee JJ, Dent LA, Leitenberg D, Bukrinsky MI, Constant SL. Novel approach to inhibit asthma-mediated lung inflammation using anti-CD147 intervention. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1;177(7):4870-9. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.7.4870. [Abstract]
  27. Arora K, Gwinn WM, Bower MA, Watson A, Okwumabua I, MacDonald HR, Bukrinsky MI, Constant SL. Extracellular cyclophilins contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses. J Immunol. 2005 Jul 1;175(1):517-22. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.175.1.517. [Abstract]
  28. Gwinn WM, Zhang M, Mon S, Sampey D, Zukauskas D, Kassebaum C, Zmuda JF, Tsai A, Laird MW. Scalable purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Jan;45(1):30-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pep.2005.04.009. [Abstract]
  29. Laird MW, Zukauskas D, Johnson K, Sampey GC, Olsen H, Garcia A, Karwoski JD, Cooksey BA, Choi GH, Askins J, Tsai A, Pierre J, Gwinn WM. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2004 Nov;38(1):145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.pep.2004.08.007. [Abstract]
  30. Gwinn WM, Sun W, Innis BL, Caudill J, King AD. Serotype-specific T(H)1 responses in recipients of two doses of candidate live-attenuated dengue virus vaccines. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Dec;69(6 Suppl):39-47. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.39. [Abstract]
  31. Hale LP, Braun RD, Gwinn WM, Greer PK, Dewhirst MW. Hypoxia in the thymus: role of oxygen tension in thymocyte survival. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Apr;282(4):H1467-77. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00682.2001. [Abstract]
  32. Staats HF, Bradney CP, Gwinn WM, Jackson SS, Sempowski GD, Liao HX, Letvin NL, Haynes BF. Cytokine requirements for induction of systemic and mucosal CTL after nasal immunization. J Immunol. 2001 Nov 1;167(9):5386-94. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.167.9.5386. [Abstract]