Program Description

A T cell is one type of immune cell responsible for protecting the body from disease and infection.
A T cell is one type of immune cell responsible for protecting the body from disease and infection. (Photo courtesy of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Our immune system is made of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend our body and protect against disease. Environmental exposures, like some pesticides or metals, may reduce the function and effectiveness of the immune system. In turn, this may increase susceptibility to infection, reduce response to vaccinations, and trigger autoimmune responses in which the body wrongly attacks its own healthy tissue.

What Is NIEHS Doing?


NIEHS supports research in the field of immunotoxicology, which explores how toxic environmental exposures may alter immune system function. For example, NIEHS-funded researchers are studying:

  • Impacts of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on COVID-19 severity and progression.
  • Impacts of arsenic exposure during pregnancy on the mother’s vaccine response and susceptibility to infection.
  • Possible links between breathing in silica and loss of immune cell tolerance causing the immune system to attack healthy tissues and organs.
  • How toxicant-triggered autoimmune disease can be prevented by modifying intake of dietary lipids.
  • Biochemical pathways that reduce lung immune responses to infections after ozone exposure.

NIEHS is also interested in examining the effect of childhood infections on the body’s response to environmental contaminants later in life, as well as possible synergistic effects between environmental factors and infectious agents.

Autoimmune Diseases

There is growing evidence suggesting the environment may contribute to autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks normal, healthy tissues and organs in the body. Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and psoriasis are just a few examples of autoimmune diseases.

NIEHS-funded researchers examine the role environmental exposures play in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases, and the biological mechanisms involved. For example, NIEHS-supported scientists study the relationship between autoimmune disease and exposure to silica and mercury, as well as the role of trichlolorethylene exposure in the development of autoimmune liver disease.

For additional information on what NIEHS grantees are doing, visit our Who We Fund tool.

Program Leads

Mike Humble, Ph.D.
Mike Humble, Ph.D.
Health Scientist Administrator, Basic Science
Tel 984-287-3272
[email protected]
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop K3-15
Durham, NC 27709
Bonnie R. Joubert, Ph.D.
Bonnie R. Joubert, Ph.D.
Health Scientist Administrator
Tel 984-287-3276
[email protected]
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop K3-12
Durham, NC 27709