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Your Environment. Your Health.

Katie M. O'Brien, Ph.D.

Chronic Disease Epidemiology Group

Katie M. O'Brien
Katie O'Brien, Ph.D.
Staff Scientist
Tel 984-287-3753
katie.o'brien@nih.gov
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop A3-05
Durham, N.C. 27709

Research Summary

BMJ Talk Medicine Podcast

In this episode of the IJGC podcast, Editor-in-Chief Dr. Pedro Ramirez, is joined by Katie M. O’Brien, Ph.D. to discuss the Use of Talcum Powder and Risk of Ovarian Cancer. Katie M. O’Brien, Ph.D. is an epidemiologist with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. She studies environmental and genetic risk factors for cancer and helps lead the Sister Study, a cohort of more than 50,000 women who all had a sister diagnosed with breast cancer.

Katie M. O’Brien, Ph.D. is a staff scientist in the Epidemiology Branch, where she helps lead the Sister Study, a prospective cohort study designed to identify environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Within the study, O’Brien’s main interests include how environmental and hormone-related exposures are related to breast, ovarian and uterine cancers. With support from the Office of Dietary Supplements Research Scholars Program, she has conducted several studies of the association between vitamin D and breast cancer, including a recent focus on the role of race and ethnicity in this relationship. Dr. O’Brien is also interested in understanding how personal care product use, including douching and genital talc use, may affect the risk of reproductive tract cancers (ovarian, uterine, and cervical). She completed a post-doctoral fellowship in the Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch and continues to be interested in epidemiologic study design and methods issues, particularly those related to the assessment of environmental biomarkers. Dr. O’Brien received her B.A. in mathematics and psychology from Williams College and her M.S.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Studies

  • The Sister Study
    The Sister Study is a prospective cohort of over 50,000 women with enhanced risk for breast cancer due to having had a sister who was diagnosed with the disease.

Selected Publications

  1. O'Brien KM, Tworoger SS, Harris HR, Trabert B, Weinberg CR, Fortner RT, D'Aloisio AA, Kaunitz AM, Wentzensen N, Sandler DP. Genital powder use and risk of uterine cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer. 2021 Jun 1;148(11):2692-2701. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33470. Epub 2021 Feb 1. PMID: 33433939; PMCID: PMC8106926. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Tworoger SS, Harris HR, Trabert B, Weinberg CR, Fortner RT, D'Aloisio AA, Kaunitz AM, Wentzensen N, Sandler DP. Genital powder use and risk of uterine cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer. 2021 Jun 1;148(11):2692-2701. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33470. Epub 2021 Feb 1. PMID: 33433939; PMCID: PMC8106926.]
  2. Von Holle A, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Janicek R, Weinberg CR. 2021. Association between serum iron biomarkers and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 30(2):422-425. [Abstract Von Holle A, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Janicek R, Weinberg CR. 2021. Association between serum iron biomarkers and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 30(2):422-425.]
  3. Nichols HB, Graff M, Bensen JT, Lunetta KL, O'Brien KM, Troester MA, Williams LA, Young K, Hong CC, Yao S, Haiman CA, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Ambrosone CB, Palmer JR, Olshan AF. 2020. Genetic variants in anti-Müllerian hormone-related genes and breast cancer risk: results from the AMBER consortium. Breast Cancer Res Treat; doi: 10.1007/s10549-020-05944-4 [Online 22 September 2020]. [Abstract Nichols HB, Graff M, Bensen JT, Lunetta KL, O'Brien KM, Troester MA, Williams LA, Young K, Hong CC, Yao S, Haiman CA, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Ambrosone CB, Palmer JR, Olshan AF. 2020. Genetic variants in anti-Müllerian hormone-related genes and breast cancer risk: results from the AMBER consortium. Breast Cancer Res Treat; doi: 10.1007/s10549-020-05944-4 [Online 22 September 2020].]
  4. Lawrence KG, Kresovich JK, O'Brien KM, Hoang TT, Xu Z, Taylor JA, Sandler DP. Association of Neighborhood Deprivation With Epigenetic Aging Using 4 Clock Metrics. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Nov 2;3(11):e2024329. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24329. PMID: 33146735; PMCID: PMC7643028. [Abstract Lawrence KG, Kresovich JK, O'Brien KM, Hoang TT, Xu Z, Taylor JA, Sandler DP. Association of Neighborhood Deprivation With Epigenetic Aging Using 4 Clock Metrics. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Nov 2;3(11):e2024329. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24329. PMID: 33146735; PMCID: PMC7643028.]
  5. Goldberg M, D'Aloisio AA, O'Brien KM, Zhao S, Sandler DP. 2020. Pubertal timing and breast cancer risk in the Sister Study cohort. Breast Cancer Res; doi: 10.1186/s13058-020-01326-2 [Online 27 October 2020]. [Abstract Goldberg M, D'Aloisio AA, O'Brien KM, Zhao S, Sandler DP. 2020. Pubertal timing and breast cancer risk in the Sister Study cohort. Breast Cancer Res; doi: 10.1186/s13058-020-01326-2 [Online 27 October 2020].]
  6. Diaz-Santana MV, O'Brien KM, D'Aloisio AA, Regalado G, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR. 2020. Perinatal and postnatal exposures and risk of young-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; doi: 10.1186/s13058-020-01317-3 [Online 13 August 2020]. [Abstract Diaz-Santana MV, O'Brien KM, D'Aloisio AA, Regalado G, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR. 2020. Perinatal and postnatal exposures and risk of young-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; doi: 10.1186/s13058-020-01317-3 [Online 13 August 2020].]
  7. White AJ, O'Brien KM, Niehoff NM, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Weinberg CR, Keil AP. 2020. Toenail metal concentrations and age at menopause: A prospective study. Environ Epidemiol 4(4):e0104. [Abstract White AJ, O'Brien KM, Niehoff NM, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Weinberg CR, Keil AP. 2020. Toenail metal concentrations and age at menopause: A prospective study. Environ Epidemiol 4(4):e0104.]
  8. Jia M, Wu Z, Vogtmann E, O'Brien KM, Weinberg CR, Sandler DP, Gierach GL. 2020. The association between periodontal disease and breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, PA); doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0018 [Online 29 July 2020]. [Abstract Jia M, Wu Z, Vogtmann E, O'Brien KM, Weinberg CR, Sandler DP, Gierach GL. 2020. The association between periodontal disease and breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, PA); doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0018 [Online 29 July 2020].]
  9. Fortner RT, Rice MS, Knutsen SF, Orlich MJ, Visvanathan K, Patel AV, Gaudet MM, Tjonneland A, Kvaskoff M, Kaaks R, Trichopoulou A, Pala V, Onland-Moret NC, Gram IT, Amiano P, Idahl A, Allen NE, Weiderpass E, Poynter JN, Robien K, Giles GG, Milne RL, Setiawan VW, Merritt MA, van den Brandt PA, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Arslan AA, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Wolk A, Håkansson N, Harris HR, Trabert B, Wentzensen N, Tworoger SS, Schouten LJ. 2020. Ovarian cancer risk factor associations by primary anatomic site: the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0354 [Online 30 July 2020]. [Abstract Fortner RT, Rice MS, Knutsen SF, Orlich MJ, Visvanathan K, Patel AV, Gaudet MM, Tjonneland A, Kvaskoff M, Kaaks R, Trichopoulou A, Pala V, Onland-Moret NC, Gram IT, Amiano P, Idahl A, Allen NE, Weiderpass E, Poynter JN, Robien K, Giles GG, Milne RL, Setiawan VW, Merritt MA, van den Brandt PA, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Arslan AA, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Wolk A, Håkansson N, Harris HR, Trabert B, Wentzensen N, Tworoger SS, Schouten LJ. 2020. Ovarian cancer risk factor associations by primary anatomic site: the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0354 [Online 30 July 2020].]
  10. O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Wentzensen N. 2020. Genital powder use and ovarian cancer-reply. JAMA 323(20):2096-2097. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Wentzensen N. 2020. Genital powder use and ovarian cancer-reply. JAMA 323(20):2096-2097.]
  11. Bertrand KA, Castro-Webb N, Cozier YC, Li S, O'Brien KM, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR. 2020. Gestational Diabetes and Risk of Breast Cancer in African American Women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0034 [Online 21 April 2020]. [Abstract Bertrand KA, Castro-Webb N, Cozier YC, Li S, O'Brien KM, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR. 2020. Gestational Diabetes and Risk of Breast Cancer in African American Women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0034 [Online 21 April 2020].]
  12. Shi M, O'Brien KM, Weinberg CR. 2020. Interactions between a Polygenic Risk Score and Non-genetic Risk Factors in Young-Onset Breast Cancer. Scientific Reports; doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-60032-3 [Online 24 February 2020]. [Abstract Shi M, O'Brien KM, Weinberg CR. 2020. Interactions between a Polygenic Risk Score and Non-genetic Risk Factors in Young-Onset Breast Cancer. Scientific Reports; doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-60032-3 [Online 24 February 2020].]
  13. O'Brien KM, Keil AP. Design and Interpretation Considerations in Registry-Based Studies. JAMA Psychiatry 2019; doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2234 [Online 16 October 2019]. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Keil AP. Design and Interpretation Considerations in Registry-Based Studies. JAMA Psychiatry 2019; doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2234 [Online 16 October 2019].]
  14. O'Brien KM, Tworoger SS, Harris HR, Anderson GL, Weinberg CR, Trabert B, Kaunitz AM, D'Aloisio AA, Sandler DP, Wentzensen N. Association of Powder Use in the Genital Area With Risk of Ovarian Cancer. JAMA. 2020 Jan 7;323(1):49-59. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.20079. PMID: 31910280; PMCID: PMC6990816. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Tworoger SS, Harris HR, Anderson GL, Weinberg CR, Trabert B, Kaunitz AM, D'Aloisio AA, Sandler DP, Wentzensen N. Association of Powder Use in the Genital Area With Risk of Ovarian Cancer. JAMA. 2020 Jan 7;323(1):49-59. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.20079. PMID: 31910280; PMCID: PMC6990816.]
  15. O'Brien KM, D'Aloisio AA, Shi M, Murphy JD, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR. Perineal Talc Use, Douching, and the Risk of Uterine Cancer. Epidemiology, (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 30(6):845-852. [Abstract O'Brien KM, D'Aloisio AA, Shi M, Murphy JD, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR. Perineal Talc Use, Douching, and the Risk of Uterine Cancer. Epidemiology, (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 30(6):845-852.] 
  16. Murphy JD, Sandler DP, White AJ, O'Brien KM. Severe acne and risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment 2019 ():-. [Abstract Murphy JD, Sandler DP, White AJ, O'Brien KM. Severe acne and risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment 2019 ():-.]
  17. Weinberg CR, Shi M, O'Brien K, Umbach DM. Adjustment for urinary creatinine or serum lipids for analytes assayed in pooled specimens. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 ():-. [Abstract Weinberg CR, Shi M, O'Brien K, Umbach DM. Adjustment for urinary creatinine or serum lipids for analytes assayed in pooled specimens. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 ():-.]
  18. O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. The influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. American Journal of Epidemology 2019 ():-. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. The influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. American Journal of Epidemology 2019 ():-.]
  19. O’Brien KM, Taylor JA, Sandler DP, Kinyamu HK, Xu Z, Weinberg CR. Vitamin D, DNA methylation, and breast cancer. In press, Breast Cancer Research.
  20. O’Brien KM, White AJ, Sandler DP, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Weinberg CR. Do Post-breast Cancer Diagnosis Toenail Trace Element Concentrations Reflect Prediagnostic Concentrations? Epidemiology, (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 30(1):112-119. [Abstract O’Brien KM, White AJ, Sandler DP, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Weinberg CR. Do Post-breast Cancer Diagnosis Toenail Trace Element Concentrations Reflect Prediagnostic Concentrations? Epidemiology, (Cambridge, Mass.) 2019 30(1):112-119.]
  21. White AJ, O’Brien KM, Niehoff N, and Sandler DP. Hazardous Metallic Air Toxics and Breast Cancer Risk in a Nationwide Cohort Study. In press, Epidemiology.
  22. Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, Schoemaker MJ, Nichols HB, Wright LB, Brook MN, Jones ME, O'Brien KM, Adami HO, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Bertrand KA, Boutron-Ruault MC, Braaten T, Chen Y, Connor AE, Dorronsoro M, Dossus L, Eliassen AH, Giles GG, Hankinson SE, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Kirsh VA, Kitahara CM, Koh WP, Larsson SC, Linet MS, Ma H, Masala G, Merritt MA, Milne RL, Overvad K, Ozasa K, Palmer JR, Peeters PH, Riboli E, Rohan TE, Sadakane A, Sund M, Tamimi RM, Trichopoulou A, Ursin G, Vatten L, Visvanathan K, Weiderpass E, Willett WC, Wolk A, Yuan JM, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Sandler DP, Swerdlow AJ. Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Nov 1;4(11):e181771. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1771. Epub 2018 Nov 8. PMID: 29931120; PMCID: PMC6248078. [Abstract Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, Schoemaker MJ, Nichols HB, Wright LB, Brook MN, Jones ME, O'Brien KM, Adami HO, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Bertrand KA, Boutron-Ruault MC, Braaten T, Chen Y, Connor AE, Dorronsoro M, Dossus L, Eliassen AH, Giles GG, Hankinson SE, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Kirsh VA, Kitahara CM, Koh WP, Larsson SC, Linet MS, Ma H, Masala G, Merritt MA, Milne RL, Overvad K, Ozasa K, Palmer JR, Peeters PH, Riboli E, Rohan TE, Sadakane A, Sund M, Tamimi RM, Trichopoulou A, Ursin G, Vatten L, Visvanathan K, Weiderpass E, Willett WC, Wolk A, Yuan JM, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Sandler DP, Swerdlow AJ. Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Nov 1;4(11):e181771. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1771. Epub 2018 Nov 8. PMID: 29931120; PMCID: PMC6248078.]
  23. White AJ, O’Brien KM, Jackson BP, Karagas MR. Urine and toenail cadmium levels in pregnant women: a reliability study. Environment International, 2018; 118:86-91. [Abstract White AJ, O’Brien KM, Jackson BP, Karagas MR. Urine and toenail cadmium levels in pregnant women: a reliability study. Environment International, 2018; 118:86-91.]
  24. O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Shi M, Harmon QE, Taylor JA, and Weinberg CR. Genome-wide association study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in US women. Frontiers in Genetics, 2018; 9:1-11. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Shi M, Harmon QE, Taylor JA, and Weinberg CR. Genome-wide association study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in US women. Frontiers in Genetics, 2018; 9:1-11.]
  25. O'Brien KM, Upson K, Buckley JP. Lipid and Creatinine Adjustment to Evaluate Health Effects of Environmental Exposures. Current Environmental Health Reports 2017 4(1):44-50. [Abstract O'Brien KM, Upson K, Buckley JP. Lipid and Creatinine Adjustment to Evaluate Health Effects of Environmental Exposures. Current Environmental Health Reports 2017 4(1):44-50.]
  26. O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Kinyamu HK, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may modify vitamin D-breast cancer associations. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 2017; 26(12):1761-1771. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Kinyamu HK, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may modify vitamin D-breast cancer associations. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 2017; 26(12):1761-1771.]
  27. O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Serum vitamin D and risk of breast cancer within five years. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2017; 125(7):1-9. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Serum vitamin D and risk of breast cancer within five years. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2017; 125(7):1-9.]
  28. O’Brien KM, Whelan DR, Sandler DP, Hall JE, and Weinberg CR. Predictors and long-term health outcomes of eating disorders. PLoS One, 2017; 12(7): e0181104. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0181104 [Abstract O’Brien KM, Whelan DR, Sandler DP, Hall JE, and Weinberg CR. Predictors and long-term health outcomes of eating disorders. PLoS One, 2017; 12(7): e0181104. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0181104]
  29. O’Brien KM, Whelan DR, Sandler DP, and Weinberg CR. Eating disorders, and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 2017; 26(2): 206-211. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Whelan DR, Sandler DP, and Weinberg CR. Eating disorders, and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 2017; 26(2): 206-211.]
  30. Shi M*, O’Brien KM*, Sandler DP, Taylor J, Zaykin DV, and Weinberg CR. Previous GWAS hits in relation to young-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2017; 161(2): 333-344. [Abstract Shi M*, O’Brien KM*, Sandler DP, Taylor J, Zaykin DV, and Weinberg CR. Previous GWAS hits in relation to young-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2017; 161(2): 333-344.]
  31. Gonzalez N, O’Brien KM, D’Aloisio AA, Sandler DP§, and Weinberg CR§. Talc use, douching and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiology, 2016; 27: 797-802. [Abstract Gonzalez N, O’Brien KM, D’Aloisio AA, Sandler DP§, and Weinberg CR§. Talc use, douching and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiology, 2016; 27: 797-802.]
  32. O’Brien KM*, Shi M*, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Zaykin DV, Keller J, Wise AS, and Weinberg CR. A family-based, genome-wide association study of young-onset breast cancer: Germline variants and maternally-mediated effects. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2016; 24: 1316-1323. [Abstract O’Brien KM*, Shi M*, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Zaykin DV, Keller J, Wise AS, and Weinberg CR. A family-based, genome-wide association study of young-onset breast cancer: Germline variants and maternally-mediated effects. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2016; 24: 1316-1323.]
  33. O’Brien KM, Upson K, Cook NR, and Weinberg CR. Environmental chemicals in urine and blood: Improving methods for creatinine and lipid adjustment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2016; 124(2): 220-227 [Abstract O’Brien KM, Upson K, Cook NR, and Weinberg CR. Environmental chemicals in urine and blood: Improving methods for creatinine and lipid adjustment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2016; 124(2): 220-227]
  34. O’Brien KM, Sun J, Sandler DP, DeRoo LA, and Weinberg CR. Risk factors for young-onset breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control. 2015; 26: 1771-1778. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Sun J, Sandler DP, DeRoo LA, and Weinberg CR. Risk factors for young-onset breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control. 2015; 26: 1771-1778.]
  35. O’Brien KM, Fei C, Sandler DP, Nichols HB, DeRoo LA, and Weinberg CR. Hormone therapy and young-onset breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2015; 181: 799-807. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Fei C, Sandler DP, Nichols HB, DeRoo LA, and Weinberg CR. Hormone therapy and young-onset breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2015; 181: 799-807.]
  36. O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Engel LS, Bensen JT, Poole C, Herring AH and Millikan RC. Breast cancer subtypes and previously established genetic risk factors: A Bayesian approach. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2014; 23: 84-97. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Engel LS, Bensen JT, Poole C, Herring AH and Millikan RC. Breast cancer subtypes and previously established genetic risk factors: A Bayesian approach. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2014; 23: 84-97.]
  37. O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Poole C, Bensen JT, Herring AH, Engel LS and Millikan RC. Replication of breast cancer susceptibility loci in whites and African-Americans using a Bayesian approach. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2014; 179: 382-94. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Poole C, Bensen JT, Herring AH, Engel LS and Millikan RC. Replication of breast cancer susceptibility loci in whites and African-Americans using a Bayesian approach. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2014; 179: 382-94.]
  38. O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Tse CK, Perou CM, Carey LA, Foulkes WD, Dressler LG, Geradts J, and Millikan RC. Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Clinical Cancer Research. 2010; 16: 6100-6110. [Abstract O’Brien KM, Cole SR, Tse CK, Perou CM, Carey LA, Foulkes WD, Dressler LG, Geradts J, and Millikan RC. Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Clinical Cancer Research. 2010; 16: 6100-6110.]
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