Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Getting cars off the road: the cost-effectiveness of an episodic pollution control program

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)
Authors
Cropper ML, Jiang Y, Alberini A and Baur P
Journal
Environmental and Resource Economics
Summary
This cost-effective analysis compared the cost of an episodic vehicle permit scheme that requires people to buy permits to drive on high ozone days with the cost of year-round ozone control in the Washington DC metropolitan area. At a low permit price ($75), the program would reduce VOCs by 39-50 tons and NOx by 33-42 tons on a high-ozone day. The cost per ozone season of achieving these reductions is approximately $9 million (2008 USD), compared to $70.4 million annually for the cost of a year-round control program that meets the same reductions as the episodic program. Results suggest that an episodic program could be a cost-effective way of reducing ozone precursors on high ozone days.
Population
Adults (≥18 years)

Health Outcomes

  • Not available

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Air pollutants (ozone (O3))
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Nitrous oxides (NOx))

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Mobile sources (vehicles)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)

Cost Measured:

  • Cost of purchasing a permit
  • cost per ton of emissions reduced

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • Washington DC metropolitan area

Models Used: (Not available)

Methods Used:

  • The authors examined the cost-effectiveness of an episodic pollution control program that requires people to purchase permits to drive on days when ozone levels are high. The authors — 1) surveyed over 1,300 commuters in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to determine household characteristics and willingness to pay for a permit; 2) applied survey results to an econometric model and random effects probit model to estimate permit demand and effects of price on permit demand; 3) used probability of purchasing a permit to predict number of cars removed from the road and cost of the permit program; 4) estimated emission reductions using number of vehicles removed and average daily tailpipe emissions; and 5) used the random effects probit model to estimate the cost of the program with less than full compliance.

Sources Used:

  • Data from a survey of 1,383 Washington metropolitan area commuters used to evaluate the episodic ozone control program (survey conducted January - March of 2008 by SRBI International); vehicle ownership by household from 2000 U.S. Census data; number of passenger vehicles in Washington D.C. area from National Capital Region Transpiration Planning board (2006); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Cropper ML, Jiang Y, Alberini A and Baur P. 2014. Getting cars off the road: the cost-effectiveness of an episodic pollution control program. Environmental and Resource Economics.

Pubmed:

DOI:

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding: (Not available)

Back
to Top