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Public health costs of primary PM2.5 and inorganic PM2.5 precursor emissions in the United States

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Authors
Heo J, Adams PJ, and Gao HO
Journal
Environ Sci Technol
Summary
The authors developed a reduced-form model to estimate marginal social costs and intake fractions for inert primary PM2.5, SO2, NOx, and NH3 in the U.S. Emission-weighted seasonal averages were estimated at $88,000−130,000/ton PM2.5, $14,000−24,000/ton SO2, $3,800−14,000/ton NOx, and $23,000−66,000/ton NH3. The aggregate social costs for year 2005 emissions were estimated at $1.0 trillion dollars. The authors model allows for updates as emissions inventories and chemical transport model improve, enhancing the potential to link policy research to up-to-date atmospheric science.
Population
Not available

Health Outcomes

  • Mortality (premature deaths)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Air pollutants (inert primary particulate matter (PM2.5/fine, mainly elemental carbon), and precursors that form PM2.5 (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3)))

Source of Environmental Agents: (Not available)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Marginal social costs
  • aggregate public health costs

Potential Cost Measures:

  • Costs due to primary and secondary organic PM2.5

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • 100 randomly selected locations in the United States

Models Used:

  • Estimating Air Quality Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) model

Methods Used:

  • The authors used a built reduced-form model to estimate marginal and aggregate public health costs for four major inorganic air pollutants in the United States. The authors — 1) employed a method that they developed, the Estimating Air Quality Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) model, to estimate air quality changes, social costs, and intake fractions from marginal emissions at 100 randomly selected locations in the U.S.; 2) used tagged chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to build a large dataset of air quality public health costs from marginal emissions in the U.S.; 3) used an average plume method to estimate population exposure; and 4) estimated social costs for 11 emissions categories.

Sources Used:

  • 2005 emissions and meteorological input data developed for U.S. EPA regulatory impact analysis (EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0491 and EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0491) (EPA, 2011); 2005 population data developed for the CAMx grid; additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Heo J, Adams PJ, and Gao HO. 2016. Public health costs of primary PM2.5 and inorganic PM2.5 precursor emissions in the United States. Environ Sci Technol.

Pubmed:

DOI:

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding:

  • Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making (SES-0949710)