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Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential impact of a greenhouse gas reduction strategy in Southern California

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA)
Authors
Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Kunzli N, and Mcconnell R
Journal
Environ Health Perspect
Summary
The authors assessed the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) relative to PM2.5 for 2008 and also estimated the CHD burden under a 2035 greenhouse gas reduction scenario in California. In 2008, an estimated 1,300 CHD deaths (6.8 percent of the total) were attributable to traffic density and 430 deaths (2.4 percent) to residential proximity to a major road. In 2035, the numbers of estimated CHD deaths and hospitalizations attributable to traffic density are anticipated to increase due to population aging, however this number was much smaller when the authors used the 2008 population age distribution. Results suggest that a large burden of preventable CHD mortality is attributable to NRAP and is likely to increase even with decreasing exposure by 2035 due to vulnerability of an aging population.
Population
Adults (≥45 years)

Health Outcomes

  • Cardiovascular outcomes (coronary heart disease)
  • mortality (cause-specific related to coronary heart disease)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Air pollutants (particulate matter (PM2.5/fine), near-roadway air pollution (NRAP), elemental carbon (EC))

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Near-roadway air pollution, residential traffic density, proximity to a major road

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost-utility analysis (CUA)
  • cost-benefit analysis (CBA)

Cost Measured:

  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) hospitalization rates
  • death counts related to coronary heart disease
  • CHD population attributable fraction (PAF) due to residential proximity to major roadways

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures:

  • Prevented CHD mortality
  • reduced CHD hospitalizations

Potential Benefits:

  • Decreased burden of stroke and COPD in elderly populations
  • decreased burden of asthma exacerbation in children
  • other health co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction

Location:

  • California's South Coast Air Basin (comprising the southern part of Los Angeles County, western portions of Riverside and San Bernardino counties, and all of Orange County)

Models Used:

  • SCAG Regional Travel Demand Model
  • Community Multiscale Air Quality model, version 4.7.1
  • Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.3
  • Caline4

Methods Used:

  • The authors assessed the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) relative to PM2.5 in Southern California. The authors — 1) used published concentration response functions (CRF) to estimate the CHD population attributable fraction (PAF) due to residential traffic density, proximity to major roadways, and to background levels of air pollution; 2) used the PAF and cause-specific mortality and hospitalization rates to estimate the CHD attributable number for 2008; and 3) used a hypothetical population scenario to estimate the health co-benefits under a California regulation that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16% in 2035.

Sources Used:

  • Total population, household, land use, and real estate data for 2008 were acquired from the Southern California Association of Governments; 2010 U.S. Census tract data; State and County Population Projections - Race/Ethnicity and 5-Year Age Groups, 2010–2060 (California Department of Finance, 2013); mortality and hospitalization data for 2008 from California Department of Public Health; South Coast Air Quality Monitoring District’s Air Quality Management Plan (SCAQMD, 2013); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Kunzli N, and Mcconnell R. 2016. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential impact of a greenhouse gas reduction strategy in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect.

Pubmed:

DOI:

NIEHS Funding:

  • P01ES022845, P01ES011627, P30ES007048, R01ES016535

Other Funding:

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (RD83544101)
  • Hastings Foundation (Pasadena, California)
  • the study was partially supported by funds from an air quality violations settlement agreement between the South Coast Air Quality Management District, a California state regulatory agency, and BP (British Petroleum)