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NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Authors
Mauzerall DL, Sultan B, Kim N, and Bradford DF
Journal
Atmospheric Environment
Summary
This study examined health damages (e.g., mortality and morbidity costs) of ozone produced from nitrogen oxides that are emitted by large point sources in the eastern United States. The results showed that a shift of a unit of nitrogen oxide emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to ozone formation and exposure. The authors called for development of a system of fees to provide emitters incentives to reduce nitrogen oxides emissions at times and in locations where health damages are greatest.
Population
Not available

Health Outcomes

  • Mortality/morbidity
  • respiratory outcomes (respiratory morbidity)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Air pollutants (ozone)

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Ozone produced by NOx emitted by large, stationary point sources (power plants)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Health damages/costs as a result of ozone exposures such as mortality costs (e.g., premature death)
  • respiratory morbidity costs (e.g., respiratory hospital admissions)

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures:

  • Reductions in adverse health effects as a result of beneficial regulations/cap-and-trade programs that aim to shift fixed amount of NOx emissions from certain sources (i.e. quantities of ozone that are produced)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • Eastern region of the United States

Models Used:

  • Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx)

Methods Used:

  • The authors described a method for estimating the damages to human health due to exposure to ozone formed as result of nitrogen oxide emissions from individual large stationary sources in the eastern United States. The authors — 1) used a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States (CAMx) to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NOx emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface ozone; and 2) examined the dependence of resulting ozone-related health damages on the size of the exposed population.

Sources Used:

  • The benefits and costs of the Clean Air Act (US EPA, 1997, 1999 & 2003); Meta-analysis of time-series studies of air pollution and mortality: update in relation to the use of generalized additive models (Stieb et al., 2003); Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 2 (CIESIN et al., 2000); CDC-NCHS (1998 & 2003); Annual Population Estimates by Age Group and Sex, Selected Years from 1990 to 2000 (US Census Bureau, 2000); Epidemiological studies of ozone exposure effects (Thurston and Ito, 1999); Consumer Price Index (US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Mauzerall DL, Sultan B, Kim N, and Bradford DF. 2005. NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs. Atmospheric Environment.

Pubmed: (Not available)

DOI:

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding: (Not available)