Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

The economic cost of environmental factors among North Carolina children living in substandard housing

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Authors
Chenoweth D, Estes C, and Lee C
Journal
American Journal of Public Health
Summary
The authors of this cost analysis study determined the cost of exposure to environmental hazards for children living in substandard housing in North Carolina. The costs exceeded $92 million in 2006 and $108 million in 2007. These findings suggest that more aggressive policies and funding are needed to reduce the substantial financial impact of childhood illnesses associated with substandard housing in North Carolina.
Population
Children and adolescents in substandard housing (≤ 18 years)

Health Outcomes

  • Neoplasms
  • birth outcomes (congenital birth defects (anencephaly, cleft lip, cleft palate, cleft palate with cleft lip, heart defects, hypospadias, limb reduction, omphalocele, and spina bifida)
  • lead or metal poisoning
  • neurological/cognitive outcomes (autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation)
  • respiratory outcomes (acute bronchitis, asthma)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Metal (lead)
  • air pollutants

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Substandard housing conditions

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Medical care treatment
  • medications

Potential Cost Measures:

  • School days lost
  • home modifications
  • developmental services
  • parental and lifetime wages lost
  • premature death
  • IQ reduction
  • lifetime earnings lost

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • North Carolina

Models Used:

  • Environmentally Attributable Fraction (EAF) model within a Proportionate Risk Factor Cost Appraisal (PRFCA) framework

Methods Used:

  • The authors quantified the economic cost of selected environmental factors among North Carolina children living in substandard housing. They — 1) estimated direct costs by reviewing various cost analysis approaches by other research and obtaining relevant medical claims and cost data for children with targeted medical conditions; and 2) estimated indirect costs by obtaining data from previous work and applying it to the target population.

Sources Used:

  • Medical claims and cost data (Division of Medical Assistance of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, 2006 and 2007); medical claims data from BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina; additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Chenoweth D, Estes C, and Lee C. 2009. The economic cost of environmental factors among North Carolina children living in substandard housing. American Journal of Public Health.

Pubmed:

DOI:

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding: (Not available)

Back
to Top