Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

The human health effects of Florida red tide (FRT) blooms: an expanded analysis

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Authors
Hoagland P, Jin D, Beet A, Kirkpatrick B, Reich A, Ullmann S, Fleming LE, and Kirkpatrick G
Journal
Environ Int
Summary
This cost-analysis estimated the human health risks and economic impacts associated with brevetoxin exposure from algal blooms of Karenia brevis in six southwest Florida counties. Specifically, these blooms were found to be significantly associated with human health and economic effects in older cohorts (≥ 55 years of age). The authors also found that the costs of illness associated with K. brevis ranged from $60,000 to $700,000 annually, but estimated that these costs could exceed $1 million per year for severe long lasting bloom events.
Population
Residents and tourists in six southwest Florida counties

Health Outcomes

  • Respiratory outcomes
  • gastrointestinal outcomes

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Brevetoxins

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Algal blooms of Karenia brevis

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Number of emergency department visits
  • number of inpatient hospital admissions
  • treatment costs for respiratory and digestive illness
  • marginal emergency department costs for respiratory and digestive illness
  • marginal costs of hospital inpatient admissions for respiratory and digestive illness
  • lost income during treatment and recuperation

Potential Cost Measures:

  • Non-market costs associated with pain and suffering
  • costs of self treatment
  • outpatient visits, costs of pharmaceutical utilized outside the emergency department of hospital inpatient environments
  • potential morbidities and mortalities from brevetoxin exposures
  • losses to local service businesses (e.g., restaurants and hotels)
  • increased costs of beach cleanups
  • lost recreational opportunities
  • reduced fishery yields
  • mortalities of passively valued protected species

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • Florida southwest or Gulf Coast counties — Hillsborough, Pinellas, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, and Lee County

Models Used:

  • Authors developed environmental exposure-response models (time-series, cross-section regression models) using monthly data at the county level to analyze the effects of algal blooms on human health

Methods Used:

  • The authors estimated the human health risks and economic impacts in Florida Gulf Coast counties related to exposure to brevetoxins from algal blooms of Karenia brevis. The authors — 1) developed exposure-response models to test the effects of K. brevis blooms on human health by using data on emergency department visits and hospital admissions, measures of K. brevis bloom events, and county level population and tourism data; and 2) used marginal costs of emergency department visits and hospital admissions to estimate costs of illness.

Sources Used:

  • Data on emergency department visits and hospital admissions from Florida Agency for Health Care Administration; Harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring database (Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2013); NOAA harmful algal blooms observing system (National Coastal Data Development Center); Shellfish harvesting area maps (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services); County level population data from US Census Bureau (2013); County level hotel and motel rental data from Smith Travel Research, Inc. (2013); Income data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (2013); Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2103); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Hoagland P, Jin D, Beet A, Kirkpatrick B, Reich A, Ullmann S, Fleming LE, and Kirkpatrick G. 2014. The human health effects of Florida red tide (FRT) blooms: an expanded analysis. Environ Int.

Pubmed:

DOI:

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding:

  • National Science Foundation (NSF/CNH grant no. 1009106)
Back
to Top