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Your Environment. Your Health.

A cross-sectional study of the relationship between blood lead levels and reported attention deficit disorder: an assessment of the economic impact on the United States

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Details

Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Authors
Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR
Journal
Metabolic Brain Disease
Summary
The authors evaluated the potential relationship between increasing blood Pb levels and the risk of a reported ADD diagnosis in 10–19 year olds living in the United States, and then calculated associated lifetime costs associated with ADD diagnosis. A significant dose-response relationship was found between increasing blood Pb levels and the risk of a reported ADD outcome (odds ratio (OR) = 1.237, p = 0.0227). The authors calculated, based on NHANES data, that an estimated 380,000 people born in the United States from 1984 to 1993 were reported to have an ADD outcome as a consequence of elevated blood Pb levels. The authors calculated total excess lifetime costs of these people with ADD would be about US $100 billion.
Population
Children (10–19 years) who had received a diagnosis of ADD

Health Outcomes

  • Neurological/cognitive outcomes (attention deficit disorder (ADD))

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Metals (lead)

Source of Environmental Agents: (Not available)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Type:

  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Direct excess lifetime costs associated with an ADD diagnosis

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location:

  • United States

Models Used: (Not available)

Methods Used:

  • The authors evaluated the potential relationship between increasing blood lead (Pb) levels and the risk of a reported ADD diagnosis, and then estimated the cost of ADD among adolescents in the United States. The authors — 1) identified a sample of 2,109 people between 10 and 19 years-old from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES); 2) analyzed social, demographic, and blood Pb levels using survey logistic and frequency modeling to identify statistically significant relationships; 3) calculated the number of people born in the United States between 1984 and 1993 who were reported to have an ADD outcome based on the NHANES analysis; and 4) calculated lifetime costs of these persons by using a published estimate of US $270,000 per case.

Sources Used:

  • 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES); lifetime costs of these persons by using a published estimate of US $270,000 per case (Birnbaum et al., 2005); direct excess lifetime costs associated with an ADD diagnosis (Birnbaum et al., 2005); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source

Citation:

  • Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. 2018. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between blood lead levels and reported attention deficit disorder: an assessment of the economic impact on the United States. Metabolic Brain Disease.
  • Pubmed
  • DOI

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding:

  • Funded by two non-profit organizations
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