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Your Environment. Your Health.

Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography


Research article Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)
Salkever DS
Environmental Research
This reassessment study of the benefits of reducing environmental lead exposure suggested a significant increase in benefits than previously reported. Rapid economic change and additional epidemiological data highlighted the need for regular reassessment of social benefit estimates to ensure that decision makers have up-to-date information when setting priorities for protecting human health and the environment.
Not available

Health Outcomes

  • Neurological/cognitive outcomes (IQ deficits)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Metal (lead)

Source of Environmental Agents: (Not available)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)

Cost Measured:

  • Considered costs assessed in a previous study — Societal benefits of reducing lead exposure (Schwartz, 1994)

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures:

  • Averted effects of lead exposure and IQ loss (effects of enhanced IQ on educational attainment, workforce participation, and earnings)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)

Location: (Not available)

Models Used: (Not available)

Methods Used:

  • The authors made minor extensions to a previous approach (Schwartz et al. 1994) to explicitly estimate the direct effects of IQ on educational attainment and on participation. Three different relationships were estimated using regression techniques — 1) least-squares regression of highest grade on cognitive ability; 2) multiple pro-bit regression of positive earnings on highest grade and cognitive ability; and 3) a least-squares regression, for persons with positive earned income, of the logarithm of earnings on highest grade and cognitive ability. As a measure of cognitive ability, the Armed Forces Qualifying Test percentile score for each respondent was converted to IQ units by assigning a score to each percentile.

Sources Used:

  • Educational attainment data (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1990); US Census Bureau (1994); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Salkever DS. 1995. Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead. Environmental Research.
  • Pubmed
  • DOI

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding: (Not available)

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