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Your Environment. Your Health.

Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography


Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Kan HD and Chen BH
Science of the Total Environment
This cost analysis reported the estimated total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately $625.40 million US dollars. The results suggested that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai in physical and economic terms.
Children and adolescents (˂ 15 years); adults (≥ 15 years)

Health Outcomes

  • Mortality/morbidity (premature death)
  • cardiovascular outcomes
  • respiratory outcomes (chronic/acute bronchitis, asthma)

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Air pollutants (particulate matter (PM 10/coarse))

Source of Environmental Agents: (Not available)

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Costs associated with premature death
  • healthcare costs (respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions)
  • outpatient visits (internal medicine and pediatrics)
  • costs associated with restricted activity days
  • costs associated with asthma attacks

Potential Cost Measures:

  • Economic costs related to sub-clinical health symptoms

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)


  • Shanghai, China

Models Used: (Not available)

Methods Used:

  • The authors assessed the health impact of particulate air pollution and estimated its social cost in the urban area of Shanghai. The authors — 1) used concentration-response coefficients derived from other studies to calculate the number of health outcomes attributable to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001; and 2) estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damages based on willingness to pay (WTP), cost of illness (COI), and value of a statistical life (VOSL).

Sources Used:

  • A survey on acute respiratory disease (Wang et al., 1994); The benefits and costs of the Clean Air Act 1990 to 2010, Appendix H 21–26 (US EPA, 1999); Willingness to pay for reducing the risk of death by improving air quality: a contingent valuation study in Chongqing, China (Wang et al., 2001); A sample survey and multiple factor analysis on asthma in urban districts of Shanghai (Ling et al., 1996); Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Public Health (2002); China Ministry of Health (1998); Shanghai Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (2002); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Kan HD and Chen BH. 2004. Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment. Science of the Total Environment.
  • Pubmed
  • DOI: (Not available)

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding: (Not available)

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