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Your Environment. Your Health.

Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh

Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography


Research article Cost analysis (CA)
Khan NI, Brouwer R, and Yang H
J Environ Management
This study implemented a survey to examine the public willingness to pay (WTP) for arsenic safe drinking water by investing in communal deep tubewells (DTW) across different arsenic-risk zones in areas of rural Bangladesh. Results showed that most survey respondents were willing to pay in principle for a communal DTW to secure access to arsenic safe drinking water; important factors that were found to influence WTP included household income, where respondents lived, awareness of water source contamination, and others. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that WTP for arsenic safe drinking water increases as the baseline risk exposure levels increase, when controlling for other factors.
Not available

Health Outcomes

  • Arsenicosis

Environmental Agents

List of Environmental Agents:

  • Metals (arsenic)

Source of Environmental Agents:

  • Groundwater, drinking water

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Cost analysis (CA)

Cost Measured:

  • Willingness to pay (WTP) for arsenic safe drinking water
  • capital costs
  • operation costs
  • maintenance costs
  • cost of medical treatment
  • loss of income

Potential Cost Measures: (Not available)

Benefits Measures: (Not available)

Potential Benefits: (Not available)


  • Bangladesh

Models Used: (Not available)

Methods Used:

  • Authors used a double bound discrete choice valuation elicitation approach to estimate the public willingness to pay (WTP) for arsenic safe drinking water by investing in communal deep tubewells (DTW) across different risk zones in rural Bangladesh. The authors — 1) developed an extended questionnaire with contingent valuation questions; 2) collected information about sociodemographics and other factors for households; 3) implemented survey in thirteen villages located in three districts (Comilla, Munshiganj, and Pabna) in Bangladesh following a stratified random sampling procedure for households; and 4) characterized villages at high, medium, or low risk for groundwater arsenic exposure.

Sources Used:

  • Value of arsenic-free drinking water to rural households in Bangladesh (Ahmad et al., 2005); A ‘natural experiment’ approach to contingent valuation of private and public UV health risk reduction strategies in low and high risk countries (Bateman et al., 2005); Environmental Quality Standards for Bangladesh, Government of the Peoples' Republic of Bangladesh (DoE, 1994); Incentive incompatibility and starting point bias in iterative valuation questions (Whitehead, 2002); Incentive incompatibility and starting-point bias in iterative valuation questions: reply (Whitehead, 2004); Constructing Krinsky and Robb Confidence Interval for Mean and Median WTP Using Stata (Jeanty, 2007); Implementation of food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of total dietary arsenic intake in Bangladesh: part B, preliminary findings (Khan et al., 2009); additional sources cited in publication

Economic Evaluation / Methods and Source


  • Khan NI, Brouwer R, and Yang H. 2014. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh. J Environ Management.
  • Pubmed: (Not available)
  • DOI

NIEHS Funding: (Not available)

Other Funding:

  • Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
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