Superfund Research Program
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) - Remediation
- Archived Seminar (10/09/02)
- Introduction - Larry Reed, NIEHS
- James Tiedje, Ph.D., Michigan State University
Richard Bopp, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
This seminar, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, will present the latest advances in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) bioremediation research. This involves genome sequencing and other genomic tools to evaluate the consequences of pollutant exposure on the overall bacterial community genome. The health of this genome is critical for effective bioremediation of PCBs to a biologically acceptable endpoint. In addition, presenters will examine the lessons learned from the PCBs found in dated sediment cores taken from the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey. Cores from depositional areas have been used to determine the history of PCB contamination, the progress of in situ dechlorination of PCBs, and the extent of influence of PCB inputs to the upper Hudson.
PCBs - Monitoring and Detection
This seminar, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, will discuss the limitations of Aroclor (commercial PCB mixture) analysis and why congener analysis provides for better decision-making with regards to human health and ecological risks of exposure to PCBs. Andy Beliveau, of the EPA's Office of Environmental Measurements and Evaluation, will focus on how congener analysis can be used to detect total PCBs, dioxin-like congeners, as well as environmentally modified PCBs. The pros and cons of each type of congener analysis will be discussed as well as the costs. The major uses of each type of analysis will be put in a historical framework, as well as presenting the state-of-the-art current applications. In addition to the discussion of congener analysis, Dr. Sylvia Daunert, of the University of Kentucky Superfund Research Program, will present her team's current work on development of genetically engineered cell-based biosensing systems. Both PCBs and their breakdown products have been shown to have significant effects on human health. The researchers are developing optical sensing systems for the detection of PCBs and their breakdown products found in hazardous waste sites. Current work includes the development of biosensing systems for chlorocatechols, which are toxic intermediates often produced by the breakdown of PCBs.
PCBs - Health Effects
- Archived Seminar (12/4/02)
- Susan Korrick, M.D., Harvard University
Rita Loch-Caruso, Ph.D., University of Michigan
This seminar, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, is the last in a series of three seminars examining current research on PCBs sponsored by EPA and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Because of their once-popular commercial uses, improper disposal and environmental persistence, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants found in many designated Superfund sites. This event highlighted the cutting edge research being conducted by NIEHS scientists into the non-cancer endpoints of exposure to PCBs. Recognition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds as potential human neurodevelopmental toxicants was largely a consequence of two mass poisonings in Japan (1968) and Taiwan (1979). Dr. Susan Korrick, of Harvard University, reviewed findings from the population-based epidemiologic studies for which prenatal PCB exposure measures are available. The particular emphasis will be on findings related to growth and neurocognitive development in infancy and later childhood. Additionally, Dr. Rita Loch Caruso, of the University of Michigan, discussed her findings that acute in vitro exposures to commercial PCB mixtures and microbially dechlorinated commercial PCB mixtures increase the frequency of spontaneous contractions of uteri from pregnant rats. Increased uterine stimulation was observed with PCB mixtures containing increased abundance of lesser-chlorinated, ortho-substituted congeners. By showing that PCBs stimulate uterine contraction in vitro, these studies provide a biologically plausible mechanism by which PCB exposures could decrease gestation length.