|Cholestasis - Click on thumbnails to view larger images|
|Cholestasis in a mouse treated with Phenobarbital.|
|Hepatocyte Hypertrophy - Click on thumbnails to view larger images|
|Centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in a CD-1 mouse.|
Centrilobular hepatocytomegaly (hypertrophy) in a mouse given phenobarbital for 8 months. Note the prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm reflective of smooth endoplasmic reticulum proliferation.
|Toxic Change (Hepatopathy) - Click on thumbnails to view larger images.|
Toxic change and hepatopathy are generic terms sometimes useful to describe a constellation of individual degenerative, inflammatory, and proliferative changes that otherwise would need to be individually documented and graded. Some pathologists utilize this terminology in addition to documenting the individual components of the specific process (e.g., hepatocyte degeneration, fatty change, oval cell hyperplasia, pigment deposition, etc.). If one chooses to exclusively utilize a generic term for individual animals or even treatment groups, it will be necessary to define accurately that term in an accompanying pathology narrative.
Fatty change and pigment accumulation within Kupffer cells along with proliferation of sinusoidal lining cells are features of toxic change in this liver.
Numerous aggregates of pigment-filled Kupffer cells and associated proliferation of small cells with basophilic nuclei are present in this liver from a mouse chronically treated with methylclophenate. Higher magnification shows small basophilic cells which are proliferating oval cells. Phagocytosized pigment is present in Kupffer cells.
|Peroxisome Proliferation - Click on thumbnails to view larger images|
|Large eosinophilic hepatocytes (eosinophilic granular cytoplasm represents peroxisome proliferation), biliary hyperplasia (ducts, ductules, oval cells), several mitotic figures, and pigment are present in the liver of this mouse fed a diet containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) for 10 months.|
|Oxidase immunohistochemical stain showing small oxidase-containing peroxisomes in smaller hepatocytes (on left) in a PPAR alpha null mouse given di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as compared with enlarged hepatocytes (on right) with peroxisome proliferation induced by DEHP in a wild type mouse.|