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Your Environment. Your Health.

Windy Boyd, Ph.D.

WormTox Group

Windy Boyd, Ph.D
Windy Boyd, Ph.D.
Tel (919) 541-2522
Fax (919) 541-1460
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop E1-05
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
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Windy Boyd, Ph.D., is a biologist in the Biomolecular Screening Branch of the National Toxicology Program Division at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). She participates in the study design, data collection and analysis, and management of the NTP WormTox Screening Facility.


Since 2006, Boyd and the rest of the WormTox group have developed several bioassays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model organism in high-throughput toxicological screening. As part of this effort, Boyd collaborates with mathematicians and biostatisticians to devise analytical methods to describe the effects of chemicals on C. elegans size, reproduction, feeding, and locomotion. To date, the WormTox group has screened over 1700 chemicals.


Boyd received B.S. and M.S. degrees in horticulture science from Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas and a Ph.D. in environmental toxicology from the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. Before joining NIEHS in 2006, she worked as a postdoctoral research fellow in the laboratory of Jonathan Freedman, Ph.D. at Duke University's Integrated Toxicology Program.

Selected Publications

  1. Harrington J, Boyd W, Smith M, Rice J, Freedman J, Crumbliss A. 2012. Amelioration of Metal-Induced Toxicity In Caenorhabditis Elegans: Utility of Chelating Agents in the Bioremediation Of Metals. Toxicol Sci (Epub ahead of print)[Abstract ]
  2. Boyd WA, Smith MV, Freedman JH. 2012. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model in developmental toxicology. Methods in Molecular Biology, 889:15-24.[Abstract ]
  3. Leung MCK, Goldstone JV, Boyd WA, Freedman JH, Meyer JN. 2010. Caenorhabditis elegans generates biologically relevant levels of genotoxic metabolites from aflatoxin B1 but not Benzo[a]pyrene In Vivo. Toxicological Sciences, 118(2):444-453.[Abstract ]  
  4. Boyd WA, McBride SJ, Rice JR, Snyder DW, Freedman JH. 2010. A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 245:153-159.[Abstract ]  
  5. Boyd WA, Crocker TL, Rodriguez AM, Leung M, Lehmann DW, Freedman JH, Van Houten B, Meyer JN. 2010. Nucleotide excision repair genes are expressed at low levels and are not detectably inducible in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic tissues, but their function is required for normal adult life after UVC exposure. Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 683(1-2):57-67.[Abstract ]  
  6. Tvermoes BE, Boyd WA, Freedman JH. 2010. Molecular characterization of numr-1 and numr-2: genes that increase resistance to metal-induced stress and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Cell Science, 123:2124-2134.[Abstract ]  
  7. Boyd WA, Smith MV, Kissling GE, Freedman JH. 2010. Medium- and high-throughput screening of neurotoxicants using C. elegans. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 32(1):68-73.[Abstract ]  
  8. Boyd WA, Smith MV, Kissling GE, Rice JR, Snyder DW, Portier CJ, Freedman JH. 2009. Application of a mathematical model to describe the effects of chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans development. PLoS ONE, 4(9):e7024.[Abstract ]  
  9. Smith MV, Boyd WA, Kissling GE, Rice JR, Snyder DW, Portier CJ, Freedman JH. 2009. A discrete time model for the analysis of medium-throughput C. elegans growth data. PLoS ONE, 4(9):e7018.[Abstract ]  
  10. Alper S, Laws R, Lackford B, Boyd WA, Dunlap P, Freedman JH, Schwartz DA. 2008. Identification of innate immunity genes and pathways using a comparative genomics approach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(19):7061-7021.[Abstract ]  
  11. Peterson RT, Nass R, Boyd WA, Freedman JH, Dong K, Narahashi T. 2008. Use of non-mammalian alternative models for neurotoxicological study. Neurotoxicology, 29:546-555.[Abstract ]  
  12. Boyd WA, McBride SJ, Freedman JH. 2007. Effects of genetic mutations and chemical exposures on Caenorhabditis elegans feeding: evaluation of a novel, high-throughput screening assay. PLoS ONE, 2(12): e1259.[Abstract ]  
  13. Cui Y, McBride SJ, Boyd WA, Alper S, Freedman JH. 2007. Toxicogenomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans reveals novel genes and pathways involved in the resistance to cadmium toxicity. Genome Biology, 8(6):R122.[Abstract ]  
  14. Meyer JN, Boyd WA, Azzam GA, Haugen AC, Freedman JH, Van Houten B. 2007. Decline of nucleotide excision repair capacity in aging Caenorhabditis elegans. Genome Biology, 8(5):R70.[Abstract ]

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